Foundation is a very critical element and most important part of your house. It is not a beauty of the house but it plays many roles for your house, main role of foundation is support the all load (live load, dead load, wind load, earthquake load etc. ) of entire house.
A strong and suitable foundation needs a proper footing plan for your house.
Footing plans provide details on footing depths and widths, slabs and stiffening beams and the type and positioning of steel reinforcement.
The factor which affect selection of a good and strong foundation of your house:
- Type of soil
- Load from house
- Type of material
- Geotechnical condition
- Type of foundation
According to these factor you can make good and strong foundation for your house and use footing plan to clarify your doubt and confusion in your foundation selection. and check stability & durability of your house.
In this article, we are also discuss about type of foundation and how to select a strong and suitable foundation for your house.
Type of Foundation
Foundations are classified as
- Shallow foundations
- Deep foundations
These foundations are categorized based upon their depth.
Shallow Foundations are constructed where soil layer have good bearing capacity. And depth should be not more than 1.5 m from ground surface. Depth of Shallow Foundation are generally equal or less than its width.
There are different type of shallow foundations used in construction:
- Spread or isolated footing
- Strip footing
- Combined footing
- Strap or cantilever footing
- Mat or raft foundation
Spread or isolated footing
Spread footing is used to support the column & walls and also transmit & distribute the all load coming on the structure to the soil below it. It is also called isolated footing.
The shape of spread footing is square, rectangle or some cases circular.
Strip footing is also called a continuous footing. It is used for a load-bearing wall and where two or more column placed so closely or overlap each other.
Combined footings are constructed for two or more columns when they are close and their footings overlap to each other.
Strap or cantilever footing
Strap or cantilever footing consisting of two or more column footings connected by a concrete beam and this beam is called a strap beam.
Mat or raft foundation
Raft foundation is a concrete slab resting on a large area of soil reinforced with steel, supporting columns or walls and transfer loads from the structure to the soil.
Raft foundation are very useful for differential settlements of the house and large variation in the load on individual columns.
Mat foundation is a suitable solution for the construction of the house where the soil bearing capacity is very low.
A deep foundation is a foundation which transfers the loads to deep strata and is placed at a greater depth, and provides lateral support and resists uplift effective.
When bearing capacity of soil is low and not enough to resist load from the house and shallow foundation is not work for this because of depth of foundation then depth needs to increase until hard strata is not found.
There are different type of deep foundations used in construction:
- Pile foundations
- Well foundations
- Piers foundations
A Pile Foundation is one type of slender structural member made of steel, concrete, wood, or composite material. Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.
There are two fundamental types of pile foundations based on structural behavior.
- End bearing piles
- Friction piles
Well foundations are a type of deep foundation that is generally provided below the water level for bridges and other construction work under the water. It is also called caisson foundation.
A pier is a vertical column of a relatively larger cross-section than a pile. A pier foundation is especially suitable for heavy structures such as flyovers in Sandy soil or soft soil overlying hard bed at a reasonable depth.
Selection of foundation for your house is not difficult if you know about these all factor which is discuss in this article and other factor like soil condition, load of structure, type of material used in the construction work. you can easily decide which type of foundation is suitable for you or combination of type of foundation.
Every foundation has different footing plan. Nowadays everyone want to their house is safe and strong in the future.
We help to provide footing plan for your house and full details of every process of construction of your house at very low cost and very useful for everyone.